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Smooth Solomon's Seal, Small Solomon's Seal
Scientific Name: Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell.
Family: Convallariaceae
Smooth Solomon's Seal, Small Solomon's Seal (Polygonatum  biflorum)
Polygonatum biflorum, Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 1: 521.
Recommended Temperature Zone:
sunset: 1-7,15-17
USDA: 3-8

Sun Exposure: Light shade to shade

Origin: Eastern United States, south-central Canada, in moist woodlands

Growth Habits: Herbaceous perennial, 1 to 3 feet tall (30-90 cm), 12 to 18 inches spread (30-45 cm)

Watering Needs: Frequent water, moist air, tolerates wet soils

Propagation: Spreads by rhizomes, division of rhizome in spring, seeds

The rhizomes are edible, starchy.

Polygonatum biflorum fruit, Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species.

Polygonatum biflorum leaves, Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species.

Blooming Habits:
Greenish white, bell-shaped, 0.6 to 1.2 inches long (1.5-3 cm), borne in 2s below arching stems, in May-June. The fruits are blue-black berries ripening in the fall, up to 0.6 inch (1.5 cm) in diameter.

Fruiting Habits:

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